Training courses and seminars

HAZOP-LOPA-SIL - Safety Techniques

3 day duration: 16-18 June

HAZOP (HAZard Operability study) is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing process or operation that allows to identify and evaluate process hazards that may represent risks to personnel or equipment; it is carried out by multi-disciplinary team (HAZOP team) during a set of meetings. The HAZOP technique is qualitative, and aims to stimulate the imagination of participants to identify potential hazards and operability problems.
Layers Of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is a powerful analytical tool for assessing the adequacy of protection layers used to mitigate process risks. LOPA builds upon HAZOP technique or similar, applying semi-quantitative measures to the evaluation of the frequency of potential incidents and the probability of failure of the protection layers.
The Safety Integrity Level (SIL) defines the performances required to a Safety Instrumented Function (SIF) for preventing an unwanted dangerous event. The SIL assessment, provides on the basis of previous semi-quantitative methods to determine (allocation) and furthermore to verify (verification) the level of safety assigned to the SIF under study.


The 3-days seminar is designed to allow the attendants to be acquainted with the three techniques and to apply jointly all three in a logic chain bringing to identify hazards, to allow semi-quantitative risks assessment, to individuate key SIF preventing the risks and to determine the SIL requirements. Participants will have the opportunity to simulate a complete exercise from preparation of the drawings to facilitating and recording the analysis. By the end of the workshop participants will understand the key elements of HAZOP-LOPA-SIL approach, preparation, organization thus allowing them to fruitfully participate and contribute to future sessions.

Who should attend?

  • Plant Operation and Maintenance Managers, Key HSE Functions, Key Supervisors, Project Managers and Project Engineers responsible/involved in facilities’ HES management, Process engineers, Instruments & Control Engineers and other disciplines engineers


  1.  HAZOP
    Introduction to Risk Management and Assessment.
    HAZOP Terminology (Correct use of parameter, deviation, guideword, study node, design intent, etc.).
    Mechanics of the HAZOP Process (Defining Nodes, Application of a deviation, Examination causes, Evaluation of consequences, Identification of safeguards, Conclusions and recommendations).
    Recommendations definition and management of relevant follow up.
    HAZOP Team (Members, Roles and responsibilities, Depth and breadth of experience).
    Recording the Study (Role of recorder, Recording format, Simultaneous recording and team consensus, P&ID mark up and sign-off, Close-out Report).
  2. LOPA
    Introduction to the concept of layers of protections.
    Classification of the frequency of the initiating event, safeguards and final event.
    Definition of risk acceptability criteria and ALARP classification.
    From HAZOP to LOPA (procedures and format for correct data inputting).
    Recording the Study (Role of recorder, Recording format, Simultaneous recording and team consensus, P&ID mark up and sign-off, Close-out Report).
  3. SIL Allocation and Verification
    Introduction to concept of SIL and to the general requirements of IEC 61508/61511.
    Definition of the Safety Instrumented Functions and their role in process safety.
    How to use LOPA in SIL Allocation studies (from team preparation to reporting and findings).
    SIL verification (use of suitable failure rates, SIF architectural and relevant constraints, modeling and calculating the Probability of Failure on Demand).
    Management of the safety life cycle of the SIF.
  4. Case study: HAZOP-LOPA-SIL Allocation Exercise, including:

a.      Study preparation (team composition, collection of documentation);

b.      Definition of nodes;

c.      Simulated HAZOP session;

d.      Identification of SIL requirement for the identified SIFs..

The exercise will usually be customized on the customer specific field of application (Oil & Gas Upstream, Oil & Gas Downstream, Petrochemical industry etc.) using customer provided documentation.

Training sessions will be basically held in English language, with translation of material and speeches in Turkish language.